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Arakan History Simplified (Part 2)

(Continued from Part 1

Maung Aurther 
RB History 
April 24, 2013

Rakhine False’s Claim (continuation of the previous title)

However, a reasonable answer was given by Dr. Aye Chan (the then U Aye Chan) under the title “Assessment of Rakhine History” in “Rakhine Tasaung magazine 1975-76.” He mentioned 

“All inscriptions before 10th century were Indian literature. Not only the ruling class but their subjects also used that literature. Burmese inscriptions were found only after 10th century. For instance, Desaraza Stone inscription! That was a swift change. There might have been a rapid and momentous political and cultural revolution in Arakan during (early) 10th century A.D. So it is difficult for us to say the present Rakhine are the same as those settlers before 10th century. It is an important issue remains to clear up for coming generation researchers.” 

What Dr. Aye Chan mentioned here alone is sufficient for one with a right mind to understand that the people before 10th century were not same to the present Rakhines (of Tibeto-Burman Group). That’s to say they were Indians (same to the present Rohingyas). To be clearer on what had happened in Arakan around 10th century, Maurice Collis mentioned 

“The area now known as North Arakan has been for many years before the 8th century the seat of Hindu dynasties; in 788 A.D., a new dynasty, known as the Chandras, founded the city of Wesali [the dynasty then] came to an end in 957 A.D., being overwhelmed by a Mongolian invasion."… (Maurice Collis, Arakan's Place in the Civilization of the Bay, p. 486) *** 

However, it is cheering to read Narinjara News Agency led by some Rakhine scholars living in Bangladesh admitting in the history section “their (Rakhines’) forebears entered the country only in the 9th Century CE as the advance guard of the Myanmar people.” (

In contrast to some present day writer’s unsubstantiated claim that Rakhine is an Indo-Aryan race, a Senior Rakhine Politician and Historian U Hla Tun Pru said, Rakhine and Burman have affinity in blood and religion. He quoted a Burmese adage to substantiate his remise that Burman, Bran, Rakhine, Yaw, and Tavoy . . . . . . all together seven groups none but Burman races. (History of Arakan; Combination of his articles; published by U Min Lwin). 

Exposing the Unsubstantiated Claims 

Yet, there are Rakhine leaders with the vested-interest who are blindly trying to stick to the baseless claim of having Indo-Aryan origin. These Rakhines will end up humiliating themselves for their claim to have Aryan blood and attempt to relate them with the earlier Indian Kings. 

GENETICS TESTS on mtDNAs and Y-DNAs on Rakhines to confirm their origin, a thorough archeological survey in the ancient sites in Arakan and subsequent open and honest disclosing of the findings by the scholars will expose all the purported lies of Rakhine bigotry scholars and might reveal many more hidden secrets of Arakan. But all these do not seem to be happening in the near future due to the involvements of local and global powers behind the exclusion of Rohingya people. 

By far, it has become evident that the indigenous people of Arakan were/are Indo-Aryans (i.e. Indians) followed by Mongoloid Tibeto-Burman in 957 CE. And if you are to consider Rohingyas as the illegal Bengali settlers of British colonial time, a question that may likely to come on your mind is “where have all the descendents of the indigenous Indo-Aryans of Arakan gone today? There is no historical record at all that says Indo-Aryans were exterminated by the invading Mongoloid Tibeto-Burmans after their invasion of Arakan in 957CE. As so, it is not hard to understand that while the kingdoms had shifted from the hands of Indo-Aryans to the hands of Tibeto-Burman, Indo-Aryans continued their usual lives as normal people. Similarly, it is also not difficult to confess that Rohingyas are the bona-fide descendents of the indigenous Indo-Aryans of Arakan unless you, intentionally, try to eradicate the true history. 

Claims on the Ground of Religion 

Moreover, another excuse given by a few self-centered Rakhine bigotry scholars to make the kings and the people before 10th century as if from their own people/race is based on the ground the religion: Buddhism. Read the following. 

"The earliest dawn of the history of Arakan reveals the base of the hills, which divide the lower course of the Kaladan and Lemro rivers, inhabited by sojourners from India, governed by chiefs who claim relationship with the rulers of Kapilavastu. 

Their subjects are divided into the four castes of the older Hindu communities; the kings and priests study the three Vedas; the rivers, hills, and cities bear names of Aryan origin; and the titles assumed by the king and queen regent suggest connection with the Solar and Lunar dynasties of India." (Dr. Emil Forchhammer, A Report on the History of Arakan, Page. 1) 

“Refer back at the evidence given by Maurice Collis mentioned and shown with *** above” 

….."The Chandra kings were upholders of Buddhism, guarding and glorifying the Mahamunni [sic] shrine; their territory extended as far north as Chittagong" [then known as Chatigrama], "The conclusion to be drawn from this MS is that Wesali [Vaishali] was an easterly Hindu kingdom of Bengal, following the Mahayanist form of Buddhism and that both government and people were Indian as the Mongolian influx had not yet occurred." (Maurice Collis, Arakan's Place in the Civilization of the Bay, Page. 486) 

Therefore, we can conclude from the above-mentioned evidences that the people in Arakan before 10th century were the followers of Hinduism, Buddhism and Animism. However, in mentioning so, what some selfish Rakhine historians fail to admit are: 

(1) The Hindus, Buddhists and Animists during those periods were only Indians (as Rohingyas are today), not Mongoloid Tibeto-Burman (as Rakhines are today). 

(2) The Buddhism in Arakan before 10th century was in the form of Mahayana, not Theravada (or Hinayana) that Rakhines follow today. 

To be continued………. 

Maung Aurther is an activist. He can be reached at

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