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By M.S. Anwar | Opinion & Analysis

The Burmese (Myanmar) quasi-civilian government unleashed a large-scale violence against the minority Rohingya in the western Myanmar state of Arakan in 2012. The violence, which some wrongly frame as ‘Communal’, was carried out by the Burmese armed forces along with Rakhine Buddhist extremist elements. The violence continued throughout the year and partially destroyed the localities of Rohingya community across the state, killing thousands and displacing more than 140,000. Many women were raped and gang-raped, untold atrocities were committed.

Consequently, the Burmese regime was internationally condemned for violence against Rohingya and international pressure increased on them to allow ‘International Investigation Teams’ to investigate into the crimes in Arakan. However, the Burmese government formed its own Investigation Commission with its own (bunch of racist) people to investigate into the crimes committed by its own armed forces. The first 'Rakhine Investigation Commission' was formed by Thein Sein, the ex-President of Myanmar and ex-military General, on 17th August 2012. 

As expected, the commission came out with a report shifting blames on the victims and everyone else except for the real culprits, the Burmese armed forces. The report was a total cover-up of the crimes committed by the armed forces.

Since then, the Burmese government has formed its own inquiry commission every time there was a demand to allow an ‘International Investigation Team’ as aftermath of a round of violence. The report that every Burmese inquiry commission came up with was expectedly white-washing of the crimes of the Genocide and the Crimes against Humanity. 

No improvements were made
in any aspect of the lives of Rohingya. The displaced people in Akyab, Pauktaw and other parts of Arakan still remain displaced. Rather, the Burmese has severed many aspects of Rohingyas' lives and persecuted them even more.

Inaction by the United Nations and; and the US, EU and ASEAN etc, who prefer to have diplomatic and economic ties with Burma over ending Genocidal violence against Rohingya; has led some desperate young Rohingyas to take desperate measures against the State Armed Forces. A group of ill-trained and poorly armed Rohingya rebels, who later came to know as ARSA (Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army), launched attacks on security posts of the Burmese armed forces, especially the Border Guard Police (BGP), in Maungdaw district and Rathedaung Township twice, on October 9, 2016 and August 25, 2017 respectively. All hell broke loose for the Rohingya once again.

The Burmese armed forces used these attacks as perfect pretexts to collectively destroy the Rohingya community by carrying out arson attacks on the Rohingya homes and driving them out from their lands. Since October 9, 2016, approximately 10,000 Rohingya villagers were summarily executed and untold numbers of women were raped by the Burmese armed forces. More than 350 villages across Maungdaw, Buthidaung and Rathedaung were burnt down, that are now being bulldozed to eradicate the Rohingya history. The genocidal destruction of the people has forced almost 700,000 people to flee to Bangladesh, triggering one of the man-made humanitarian disasters in history.

So, since the violence began in June 2012, the Burmese regime has formed following Inquiry Commissions with their own men, and successfully managed to reject all the international calls to allow ‘International Investigation Teams’.
1) The Rakhine Investigation Commission (formed on 17th August 2012)
2) Duchiradan Investigation Commission (formed on 6th February 2014)
3) Investigation Commission on Rakhine (formed on 1st December 2016, after October 9, 2016 violence)
4) Committee for Implementation of the Recommendations on Rakhine State (formed on 9th October 2017)

None of these government’s investigation teams has found any member of armed force guilty despite a mountain of evidences of Genocide and Crimes against Humanity by the members of the armed forces.

In short, formation of 'Investigation Commissions' is a TIME-BUYING tactic by the Burmese government and a distraction from the unfolding Genocide. In this regard, the Burmese government now led by Aung San Suu Kyi has also formed following Commissions comprising some well-known international figures.
1) Kofi Annan's Advisory Commission on Rakhine State (formed on 24th August 2016)
2) Advisory Board for the “Committee for Implementation of the Recommendations on Rakhine State” (14th December 2017)

However, these commissions, too, have so far proven to be playing on behalf of the Burmese government and military to rebuild their image on the international stage and have become hindrances to making any real progress in the crisis or international calls to punish the Burmese military for committing Genocide and Crimes against Humanity. In fact, the Burmese Presidential Spokesperson Zaw Htay openly said 'Kofi Annan Commission is a Shield for the Government.

And this is the tactic used by the Burmese government to frustrate international community to eventually give up their calls for 'Independent Investigations' and to end Genocide. This is just one of many methods that military frequently uses to distract us from Genocide and Crimes against Humanity. There many more methods such as 'Victim-Blaming and Blaming Everyone Else for the Culprits' they use to downplay Genocide, which will be discussed later.

The cycle of violence against Rohingya has been going since 1951 and will continue until they are completely destroyed in Myanmar. For Army Chief Snr. Gen. Min Aung Hlaing, Rohingya is an 'Unfinished Business from WW2'. Now, it's up to the world communities if they collectively act to stop the Genocide or not.

[Note: 1) The Burmese armed forces mostly act upon the commands from the highest level of the Command Chain and so to say that the Burmese generals at the top must be held accountable for most of the atrocities committed by the armed forces on the ground.
2) Some words used in the article: Burma = Myanmar, Burmese = Bama (the majority Buddhist population in the country), Burmese armed forces = Burmese military, Hluntein (paramilitary), BGP (Border Guard Police) and Nasaka (the former Border Security Force)]

M.S. Anwar is an activist and journalist born and brought up in Arakan, Burma. He can be reached at:
Wynston Lawrence
RB Analysis
October 12, 2017

Suu has spoken on Myanmar National TV channel on 12 October 2017. She would like to tell her fellows Burmese people how her government is going to confront challenges of Rohingya Crisis. This crisis has gained world attentions with terrible comments from international community. Some has described as Genocide and other used as “Textbook example of Ethnic Cleansing. No matter what they names, these are great crimes under International Laws. Suu has spoken twice on 9/19 and today 10/12. For 9/19 speech, she has been condemned by critics because she failed to criticize violence such as killings, raping, burning houses committed by brutal Burmese Army and Rakhine Buddhists extremist. Some accused her as an apologist for Ethnic Cleansing, Genocide and mass rapes. Today she spoke in Burmese and I will use an official translation of her ministerial government. This translation has been released on official Facebook page of Myanmar State Counsellor Office. But I will include some words in original translation with bracket to free misunderstanding in the community of English language speaking. 

ASSK: ((Report to the (Burmese) People By State Counsellor Daw Aung San Suu Kyi))

WL: ((She has today spoken for mainly Burmese audiences and reporting for Rohingya Crisis.))

ASSK: ((May all the (Burmese) people be in good health and well-being. May peace be in your hearts. First of all, let me tell you how grateful I am, for standing together with our government, with full understanding and unity, at a time when we are facing extreme challenges. There is no power which can compare with the support of the people, trust of the people and the unity of the people. I believe that no matter whatever difficulties we face, we can overcome, with the unity of our people.))

WL: ((She is expressing gratitude to the Burmese people because there has recently a lot of gatherings in Burma for supporting Aung San Suu Kyi and its government, sometimes they support even Burmese Army. I am not sure why are they supporting Suu Kyi but I think they want to show the world that they are standing with Suu Kyi for whatever she does. Suu acknowledged that she is facing with extreme challenges. I want to point out that if she believe in her own people’s support is so crucial for her, why did she cry out for international supports when she has been defeated by Burmese Army. She failed to recognize important of international supports for her and her country. Is she relying now only on so-called national supports?))

ASSK: ((As all of you know, the attention of the world on the Rakhine issue has been immense, beginning with the attacks on the police outposts in Rakhine State last (year) October, the terrorist attacks which happened again in August of this year and the related problems that grew out of these attacks. There has been a lot of criticisms against our country. We need to understand international opinion. However, just as no one can fully understand the situation of our country the way we do, no one can desire peace and development for our country more than us. That is why we need to tackle these problems based on the strength of our unity.))

WL: ((She talks about deadly attacks on Police stations by ARSA militants in last year, October and this year, 25 of August. She used the words of “terrorist attacks" for ARSA insurgents group but she failed to mention "terrorist attacks" by Burmese Army on innocent Rohingya victims. She may seem to forget to use the word of “terrorist attacks” of Burmese Army on innocent Rohingya civillians. She neglected to express sympathy with half of millions Rohingya refugees who have fled to Bangladesh to escape killings, raping, burning alive by Burmese Army and radical Rakhine Buddhists mob. She is saying like ex-dictators that no one in the world better understand Burma than herself and her people. She did not know that it was British historian who told them, you Burman (Bamar) are one of the groups of Tibeto-Burman. It was British people who build Rangoon University and give them latest Modern education in Burma. Burmese people are getting only Buddhist monastic education before British went to Burma. Today she is claiming that no foreigner can understand Burmese’s problems better than Burmaese people. She is also discrediting international desire of peace and developments in Burma.))

ASSK: ((At this time, our country needs to continue doing the things that needs to be done. Furthermore, the things that need(s) to be done, (what) should be done correctly, bravely and effectively. We will implement the commitments we made till progress and success is achieved. Rather than rebutting criticisms and allegations with words, we will show the world by our actions and our deeds. In the Rakhine State, there are so many things to be done. If we are to take stock and prioritize, there are three main tasks: 

a) First, repatriation of those who have crossed over to Bangladesh and providing humanitarian assistance effectively;

b) Secondly, resettlement and rehabilitation; and

c) Third, bringing development to the region and establishing durable peace.

We will enhance our ability to provide humanitarian assistance effectively. We are negotiating with the Government of Bangladesh on the matter of accepting those who are now in Bangladesh. Since our independence, we have twice, successfully negotiated with Bangladesh on the issue. Based on these successful traditions, we are now negotiating for the third time.))

WL: ((Promises of Suu Kyi has become unreliable and untrustworthy because she promised in the last speech that all human rights violators will be punished according to the laws of Burma but no one from Burmese Army and extremist Rakhine Buddhist mob was arrested for their crimes. Moreover her government and Burmese Army indeed used a lot of moneys to encounter international media for her so-called iceberg of misinformation! But the world is not stupid as they think and their systematically media warfare was become very weaken in the international community. That is also a great effect for their blocking international and national medias, except for state-sponsored program, for going to effective areas in Rakhine State. Then she's admitted that systematic Ethnic Cleansing was not started recently but decades ago. First time was in 1978, and following was 1991. In fact these two previous crises was nothing to do with Suu Kyi. They were committed crimes of Burmese military dictators, General Ne Win and Tyrant General Than Shwe. Please note that these previous two repatriations were not successful traditions for Rohingya victims because thousands could not return their ancestral homeland, Arakan. On the other hand, they were successful traditions for Burmese dictators as they don’t want to see any Rohingya in Arakan state of Burma if possible. Past agreements are NOT totally fair for Rohingya. At that time, Bangladesh government did not get enough international supports and they also had their own problems. Today is different; Bangladesh government earned a lot of international praise, sympathy and supports as well they have more stable political situations ever before. Bangladesh was considering to having fair-go and new an agreement with Burmese Government. Furthermore Bangladesh Foreign Minister informed international community within this week, they have sent new agreement proposal to Burmese Government. They are still waiting and getting no response from Burmese government. That’s what Suu Kyi’s government is doing seriously for Rohingya Crisis.))

ASSK: ((As we work on the resettlement and rehabilitation efforts, we need to work not only for those who will be returning from Bangladesh but also for the very small national races such as Daing-net and Myo as well as Rakhine Nationals and Hindus. We will work to ensure that they will regain their normalcy. We will seek durable, sustainable programs to improve their lives. We have to formulate long term programmes for the development of the region and continue working for durable peace to relieve this region of conflicts in the years to come.))

WL: ((She even doesn’t have a heart to call the name of “Rohingya” while she mentioned nearly all of ethnic groups in Rakhine state by name. According to the Wall Street Journal, Suu Kyi forbid visiting diplomat for using “Rohingya” name. She told that, “They are not Rohingya. They are Bengali. They are foreigners.” That is what she believed about Rohingya but her believed was against historical evidences. Rohingya were NOT the descendants of colonial era "farm coolies" from East Bengal as Myanmar government blatantly lies to the world. Based on the 14th century stone inscriptions, Professor Dr. G. H. Luce described them as "a fine type of devout and scholarly-minded Muslims." They have been indigenous ethnic group to North Arakan since 1400 AD. According to the late Professor Luce, essentially the founder of modern historical studies of the ancient Myanmar or Burma and the mentor of Professor Dr. Than Tun, the presence of the Rohingya (Rohinjas) in Burma was evidenced in the stone inscriptions from the Ava period (AD 1400). [Luce, G. H. 1985, Phases of pre-Pagan Burma : languages and history / by G.H. Luce Oxford University Press Oxford ; New York] The term "Rooinga" (Rohingya) which can also be found in a research "A Comparative Vocabulary of Some of the Languages Spoken in Burma Empire" carried out by British medical doctor, researcher and traveler, Dr. Francis Buchanan in 1799 C.E. Its copy can be received here: Dr. Francis Buchanan's record was done in 1799 C.E., before British colonial period, is based on primary evidence. That is why Western scholars now have no problems to believe that Rohingya people lived in Arakan before Burma occupied Arakan. That is why they find the Muslim Rohingya being unfairly treated for their racial and religious differences with the Buddhist- Mongoloid Burman- Rakhine variety. This is clearly racism.

Suu Kyi wants to use international donations mostly for Rohingya to other ethnic groups as they have been demanded in the past 50% share for non-Rohingyas and other for Rohingya. Their numbers are not the same. Rohingya refugees has highest numbers. If they get any national donations that are going to Rakhine state, they do not consider for Rohingya but only for their fellows Buddhist Rakhine mostly. They have had discriminated Rohingya in many forms. I am not denying that there are some amounts of people who have to Burma from today Bangladesh in the period of British colonial rule. It should be noted that they are NOT illegal migrants because British ruled over Bangladesh as well as Burma. But I would to quote from Israel research Moshe Yegar’s writing. He said, “those Muslims who had resided since the days of Mrauk-U dynasty and the Muslims from Chittagong who immigrated into Arakan in 19th and 20th century were integrated to some extent and comprised the present Rohingyas. [Yegar, Moshe. 2002. Between Integration and Secession: The Muslim Communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand, and Western Burma/Myanmar. Oxford. Lexinton Books.])) 

ASSK: ((For each program there are many tasks. Our entrepreneurs, NGOs, CSOs and the people, have stated their wish to participate and help. The international community has also stated their wish to cooperate and assist. This is a matter of national importance. The Union Government and state/regional governments will take the leading role. We will give due regard and serious consideration to the sincere offers of cooperation made at home and from abroad. For the development of Rakhine State, to implement projects in all sectors, we need a mechanism which allows the Union Government, the people, the private sector, local NGOs and CSOs, friendly countries, UN agencies, INGOs to work together in cooperation. We will call this mechanism the "Union Enterprise for Humanitarian Assistance, Resettlement and Development in Rakhine". This enterprise has been established with the aim of allowing the Union Government and all local and international organizations to work in all sectors and all strata of society. In this "Union Enterprise for Humanitarian Assistance, Resettlement and Development in Rakhine", I will act as Chairperson, representing the Government in my capacity as State Counsellor. Dr. Win Myat Aye, Union Minister for Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement will act as Vice Chairman. He is the Chairman of the Committee assigned to implement the recommendations of Dr. Kofi Annan’s Advisory Commission on Rakhine State. We will implement the short and long term tasks effectively. We will use this Programme to show practical and progressive results as we work towards the emergence of a peaceful and developed Rakhine State. I wish to earnestly invite and welcome, all the people of our country, NGOs, CSOs and Business Leaders to join hands and cooperate with us. We will begin the Programme this coming week. As we implement this Programme, I believe that we will be able to utilize the strength of will, determination, and knowledge; bravely and energetically. We will use the power of truth and purity, so that this Enterprise will be worthy of being called a ‘milestone’ in our history.”))

WL: ((This plan is seems to be acceptable but need a lot of times and resources. Importantly there is no SINGLE Rohingya representative in their enterprise. A handful of Rohingya people, who have citizenship of Burma, are living currently in Rangoon, they should be included in Suu Kyi's so-called Union Enterprise for Humanitarian Assistance, Resettlement and Development in Rakhine.))

ASSK: ((To develop the Rakhine state, we have invited those who wish to assist us; UN agencies, financial institutions like the World Bank and ADB, INGOs like the Nippon Foundation and friendly countries. We place great hope on our Union nationals living within the country and abroad. No matter where they may be in the world. I have no doubt that all of them would come forth to help us with Metta (loving kindness) and Thitsa (Truth). Although our Union may not be strong, I am confident that we will besuccessful by uniting our will. Our people are well known for their generosity and philanthropy and have even been ranked as number one in the world. We will put to good use this generous nature of our people, systematically. The most powerful force for making our Union peaceful and developed is our people. No matter how much anger, hatred and bullying, we may have to face, we shall overcome all challenges and obstacles by holding fast to Metta, Karuna and Mudita (Loving kindness, Compassion and Sympathetic joy). Let us join hands and work together for the success of the "Union Enterprise for Humanitarian Assistance, Resettlement and Development in Rakhine" with the understanding that we are not working for one region only but for the entire Union. Beginning from Sunday, 15th October, we will announce through our website and State news media how you can help and how to communicate with us. We shall make arrangements, so that all the sons and daughters of our Union and our friends abroad who have goodwill in their hearts may get in touch with the nearest diplomatic missions and Consulates-General to help us in this endeavour. May I once again pray for the good health of all our people, the true strength of our country, whom we trust and depend upon. May you all have peace and tranquillity in your hearts. May all your righteous good wishes be fulfilled.))

WL: ((This part is an ocean of loving, kindness, compassion and sympathetic joy. This should be most welcoming but if they have had these noble attitudes at first place, Rohingya will not suffered these kinds of unimaginable atrocities.))

In conclusion, I can analyzed her speech as follows:

1. She failed to speak about when Rohingya will be recognized as one of the indigenous groups of Burma as they were before in the period of Parliamentary Democracy Era.

2. She failed to speak about when International and National medias will be allowed to go Rakhine State.

3. She failed to speak about when she will issue visas for UN Facts Finding Mission to investigate serious crimes, Ethnic Cleansing and human rights violations in Burma.

4. She failed to speak about how Rohingya who are currently living in Central Rakhine areas, mainly in Sittway District will be provided foods, waters, medicare and so on.

5. She failed to speak about how Human Rights violators from Burmese Army and Rakhine Buddhists mob will be prosecuted.

6. She is trying to divert an attention of International communities mainly for UN Security Council and European Commission. The first speech (9/19) was before UN Security Council meeting on (9/28) and also this speech (10/12) was come out because tomorrow (10/13) UN Security Council has informal meetings with Kofi Annan. Suu Kyist government know that UN Security Council has absolute power to refer Rohingya Genocide or Ethnic Cleansing case to International Criminal Court for full investigation.

Wynston Lawrence is a Political Analyst and Human Rights Activist based in western Australia. 

Follow on twitter @LawrenceWynston

Ne Myo Win 
RB Analysis and Opinion 
September 29, 2017

Let me not detail much about the harrowing accounts of horrors that the Rohingya people in Myanmar have been going through since August 25, 2017. The world leaders such as Emmanuel Macron, Recep Erdogan and Najib Razak have called it Genocide. The UN Secretary General, the UN Human Rights Commissioner, Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International have called it ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity. Over 3,500 Rohingya villagers were massacred by the Burmese military and Rakhine extremists and approximately 220 villages have been partially or entirely burnt down in northern Arakan since then forcing nearly 500,000 Rohingyas to flee to Bangladesh. 

Domestic Media Turned into Propaganda Machines

Many familiar with Myanmar are well aware of the Burmese military’s notorious history of lies, propaganda and staging fake events to conceal atrocities. This time, in the ongoing crisis in Arakan state, they have taken the level of disseminating propaganda and lies to a notch higher. The military are staging fake events one after another and later, getting exposed internationally.

The Burmese military could have calculated well in advance about how to provoke the ARSA (Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army) -- an ill-equipped and poorly trained Rohingya rebel group operating in northern Arakan – to launch desperate attacks on Police posts, use the attacks as pretext to launch a scorched-earth operation against the entire Rohingya population and respond to international outcries against it. 

Therefore, the Burmese military have assigned thousands of trolls on social media including Twitter this time (which was previously unknown territory for most Burmese social media trolls) spamming the comment sections of corporate media; human rights advocates and activists; and journalists with doctored images and videos. Although this could not make most media, human rights advocates and international community fall into the Burmese military propaganda, the method has been proven to be quite effective to confuse and distract them.
As the Burmese army violently attacks Rohingya Muslims, a new army of bots spew their propaganda on social media [Credit: Kenneth Roth on Twitter]

The International media and human rights groups have no free access to northern Arakan state which has been sealed off since August 25. On the other hand, domestic media and other Western countries funded Burmese media groups like Irrawaddy, DVB and Mizzima are unapologetically and relentlessly running the army propaganda. The Burmese public, most of whom are already deeply racists, are continuously being fed with distorted news and thereby, attracting popular supports for the army-led genocidal operations against the Rohingya.

Entangling Minority Hindus in Conflicts

The Muslims (apart from Kaman Muslims) and the Hindus in Arakan state are ethnically, culturally, linguistically and appearance-wise similar. Like Rohingya Muslims, Rohingya Hindus have been historically discriminated and persecuted by the successive Burmese regimes and most of them do not even hold 2ndCategory National ID Cards leading them to face travel restrictions. 

As it’s seen now, the Burmese military are in the process of creating conflicts between the 2 communities on the basis of their religions, who, otherwise never had problems in the peaceful co-existence that goes as far back as to the independence of Burma. It’s sad that the military have begun coaxing, coercing and repeatedly misusing the minority Rohingya Hindus for political edge and concealing the military’s atrocities. On September 6, the military misused some local Hindus to stage a drama of ‘Rohingya burn their own homes and flee’ in Maungdaw and which later got exposed.

On September 24, the Myanmar government broke out news that it uncovered 28 dead bodies that the government claimed to be (Rohingya) Hindus and they were killed by ARSA on August 25. Irony is that the government-run ‘the Information Committee’ and other similar Facebook pages that have never failed to report anti-Rohingya reports or rather disseminated hundreds of made-up anti-Rohingya reports have surprisingly failed to report about the missing of these over 100 Rohingya Hindus or about their deaths on time or even in the following days in that matter. Why now?
Go through the following screenshots.

Kyaw Zaw Oo’  on September 12 reported that the killings of the Hindus took place on August 24 and 25. But why on August 24 when the ARSA rebels launched attacks on the police posts and military bases ONLY at around 3am on August 25? So, who killed them then? Who were the black-squads that killed both Hindus and Muslims? Were they ARSA? 
As far as I and other analysts are concerned, the ARSA didn’t put up significant resistances to the Burmese military after their initial attacks. Their attacks on lasted until August 25 afternoon and they retreated. The ARSA have officially denied of killing any civilians and demanded to allow International Investigations into the Arakan state. Even then, considering that the ARSA committed mass-murders of civilians, why didn’t the Burmese military claimed they were responding to the mass-murders as well as attacks on the police posts by ARSA? Why didn’t the Burmese military utter a word about the mass murders back then? 

OR were these pre-planned killings by the Burmese military themselves in disguise of ARSA even before the ARSA carried out their attacks on the police posts on August 25 morning? Were the mass murders committed by the Burmese military to later shift the blame on the ARSA in order to convince the international community that the ARSA are terrorists and shift their focus away from the unfolding genocide? If so, how did the Burmese military exactly know when the ARSA would attack them? 

However, many are now willing to know as to how the Burmese armed forces found out the location of the mass-graves of Hindus more than who actually killed them. The Hindu community members are also found giving different accounts to different media as to how they first came to know about the mass-graves. Watch the following video and read the remarks made by Zarni Maung, a Burmese Facebook user:

Something is really missing which needs thorough international independent investigations.

Undermining Genocide

The Burmese military have killed nearly 400 Rohingya people which the government claims to be ARSA although the actual numbers of Rohingya Muslims killed could exceed over 3,500. But where are their dead bodies? Why is the government only singling out the (Rohingya) Hindu dead bodies? Isn’t it the Burmese military playing politics with dead bodies to downplay genocide and shift attention away from it? 

The Burmese government and military must understand that blaming or even successfully proving that the ARSA did the crimes does not give them a license to murder over 3,500 Rohingya people en masse, destroying over 220 of their villages and drive out a population of nearly 500,000 to a neighboring country. The world must understand that the (Rohingya) Hindus are not darlings of the Burmese military regime. History proves that. The military regime is clearly using them at their disposal. 

It’s Genocide of Rohingya which Burmese military regime is desperately trying to conceal. With no one is given independent access to the Arakan state to freely investigate, the Burmese official sources and domestic media, the only means for the international community and media can look up to for information, have become propaganda machines and platforms for outsourcing racial and religious violence in the regional countries.

The Burmese military has been clearly looking for regional partners to come in their support of Rohingya genocide, which is unfortunately happening now. On September 26, the Buddhist monks and supremacists attacked Rohingya refugees in Sri Lanka. The Indian media such as Times Now and Republic etc and a great section of public are going berserk in anti-Rohingya campaigns labeling the entire Rohingya population as terrorists.

Partners in Genocide: Buddhist Supremacists in Sri Lanka (Photo: AP/Eranga Jayawardena)

Refugees Infiltrated and Propaganda Outsourced

At this juncture of an unfolding genocide in Myanmar and widespread disinformation disseminated by the country’s the highest level of authorities, the only hope for the international media, human rights groups and analysts for accurate information is to turn to the refugees fleeing to Bangladesh. Along with great majority of Rohingya Muslims fleeing to Bangladesh, some small of Rohingya Hindus are also fleeing. In their initial accounts, some Rohingya Hindus said that they fled as they were indiscriminately attacked by the Rakhine Buddhists and the Burmese military. However, they gave different accounts in some of later interviews. [Watch below.]

One may wonder how these could be happening but it seems that these Rohingya Hindu refugees were coaxed or coerced to change their statements through their remaining relatives in Myanmar. Or it could be that the Burmese military regime infiltrated them among the fleeing Rohingya Muslim refugees with pre-planned agenda such as giving conflicting accounts of horror to the international media waiting in Bangladesh. Such conflicting accounts would discredit the genuine accounts narrated by the Rohingya Muslim refugees or at least confuse the international community about Genocide. 

Whatsoever the case is, it is clear that the Burmese military are successfully outsourcing their lethal propaganda and communal/religious conflicts in the neighboring countries by this means or the other. And the current Burmese military regime, like previous ones, is clearly getting away unpunished for their genocidal operations against Rohingya.

Ne Myo Win is an activist and independent analyst based in Yangon. Views expressed here are his. He can be reached at:

By Dr Maung Zarni
RB Analaysis
September 25, 2017

Rakhine human rights activists have been found to be reading Mein Kampf when they were exiled along Thai-Burmese border towns such as Mae Sot. 

Nazi symbols are often used publicly - with such public approval by those who want to exterminate Rohingyas in particular and all Muslims in general.

Rakhine political leaders and intelligentsia, including the Rakhine member of Kofi Annan Commssion - Daw/Mrs Saw Khin Tint - are often found speaking in genocidal discourses. 

I have long developed a sensitivity to this genocidal discourses, having studied at the U. of Wisconsin at Madison with a former SS-interrogator, a historian of Nazi Germany the late Robert H. Koehl. (My main thesis adviser was Michael W. Apple, but Koehl and I had a shared interest in totalitarian regimes and ideologies that are used to justify them). 


Myanmar's FAKE NEWS generated by both the gov. and the civil society

Do you know what "mirroring" means, in genocide studies?

Myanmar - gov and public - engage in genocidal Fake News.

The picture is about Myanmar Tatmadaw laying anti-personnel landmines.

The Burmese caption reads "ARSA terrorists laying landmines. Please report this to the Tatmadaw."

Genocide scholars have a term for this "mirroring", that is, attributing the genocidal killers' intent to the victims.

In the same vein as Myanmar's official and popular mirroring discourse (e.g., "Bengalis burn their own hoems") the Hutu Rwanda genocide perpetrators said "they (Tutsi victims) killed themselves. Because they didn't want to live with us peacefully).


In this genocidal context Myanmar journalists, cartoonists, academics, as well as techno-professional classes such as doctors, engineers, accountants, etc. partake in the country's orgy of genocidal violence, symbolically and literally.

Here is a cartoon by the nationally acclaimed cartoonist Aww P Kyael. He was admitted into a MPA program at Harvard's Kennedy School, on Aung San Suu Kyi's recommendation about 15 years ago.

Aww P Kyael

His cartoon depicts Rohingyas' cries as "crocodile's tears", crocodiles claiming they were 'forced to flee their native land". 

Here is Irrawaddy News Group Founder and Chief Editor Aung Zaw engaging in genocidal denial (and he offered the most notorious interview with former Thein Sein Information Minister ex-Col. Ye Htut, helping the latter frame Rohingya issue as "jihadist' issue). 

Besides, we have Oxford and Cambridge-trained professionals and researchers who also partake in this loathsome process. 

This one (above) ​is reportedly proven Fake News - "Bengalis burn their villages down" - generated by aung San Suu Kyi's spokesperson, Director General in the President's Office ex-Major Zaw Htay. Suu Kyi's Fellow at Oxford was circulating it on her Facebook timeline, approvingly.

Another one is Aye Thein, former English teacher from Rakhine (see below):

​"Eyewitness account of four villagers being attacked by machete-wielding Bengali mob. This man escaped, one sustained injuries and two (one his brother-in-law and another a relative of his were murdered).

Interview script (minus questions from the interviewer).

My name is [.…]. I am from Tarain Village. So, four of us left the village on motorbike looking for those who were missing. We didn't go far and given that we couldn’t find anyone, we just said to ourselves “All right, let’s go back”. On our way back, a mob of Kalars (Bengalis) brought down machetes on us. It was so cruel. We got separated trying to flee their attacks. Two of us escaped with one sustaining knife injuries. Sein Than Aung, the one with knife injuries escaped to this own village. My brother-in-law was killed and another one from the village named Ko Ko Thein was also killed. He was also a relative of ours. The name of my brother-in-law is U Aung Kyaw. I saw him being brutally killed (macheted to death) with my own eyes. The Kalar mob was 50-60 strong." ​

Both Khin Mar Mar Kyi, Aung San Suu Kyi Gender Research Fellow at Lady Margaret Hall (LMH) at Oxford and Aye Thein are involved with Oxford University-run Oxford Tea Circle. 
They promote Fake News, provide justificatory analyses for demonization and dehumamization of Rohingyas and gloss over the genocidal nature of Burmese Buddhist racism and racist networks. 

Eleven is run by medical doctor named Dr Than Htut Aung, a Rakhine.

This one (below) is from a former Chevening Fellow and a well-known head of a Burmese NGO - Zaw Oo (not Dr Zaw Oo, the former economic adviser to President Thein Sein). He was a member of the MultiCulturalist Network I helped founded inside Burma to fight the racism about 4 years ago. He is also publisher of "Myanmar Knowledge Society" and editor of "Democracy and Human Rights Journal". 

The post depicts me as someone who is telling the world lies about Rohingyas.


This one is from Miss Myanmar who will contest in the International Beauty Pageant. 

What is the link between former US Diplomat, Ne Win's grandson Aye Ne Win, this beauty queen and Rohingya genocide?

When she was head of US Embassy - sub-Ambassador post - in the early 2000's - Priscilla Clapp spent most of her time playing golf with the killer-Tatmadaw generals, and Ne Win's grandsons.

Miss Myanmar , said to be Aye Ne Win's girlfriend, joins the national orgy of Rohingya genocide; cites former diplomat who played golf with killer-generals


This one is from Dr Maung Aye Myo, an army-bred well-known expert on the Burmese military affairs and lecturer in international relations in Japan.

8888 former student leader Mya Aye attacking falsely Rohingyas as "greedy Islamicists" who want a separate state!

Rohingya and the Right to Self-Identify by Dr Maung Zarni at Permanent People's Tribunal on Myanmar on March 7, 2017

Understanding Myanmar Military and Its Strategic Paradigm - Dr. Maung Zarni

By Haikal Mansor
RB Analysis
January 10, 2017

The 1988 Rohingya Extermination Plan was first proposed by Col. Thar Kyaw who was an ethnic Rakhine and the first chairman of National Unity Party (NUP), a proxy party of Burmese military and former Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP) formed to compete against National League for Democracy NLD during the 1990 general election.

The plan was adopted by the Burmese junta’s State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) in 1988 and continued under State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). 

The successive military regime has carried out the 11-point extermination blueprint against Rohingya Muslim minority.

1. The Muslims (Rohingya) are not to be provided with citizenship cards by identifying them as insurgents

2. To reduce the population growth of the Rohingyas by gradual imposition of restrictions on their marriages and by application of all possible methods of oppression and suppression against them

3. To strive for the increase in Buddhist population to be more than the number of Muslim people by way of establishing Natala villages in Arakan (Rakhine State) with Buddhist settlers from different townships and from out of the country

4. To allow them temporary moment from village to village and township to township only with Form 4, and to totally ban them travelling to Sittwe, the Capital of Arakan State

5. To forbid higher studies (university education) to the Rohingyas

6. No Muslim is to be appointed in government services

7. To forbid them from ownership of lands, shops and buildings. Any such properties under their existing ownership must be confiscated for distribution among the Buddhists. All their economic activities must be stopped.

8. To ban construction, renovation, repair and roofing of the mosques, Islamic religious schools and dwelling houses of the Rohingyas 

9. To try secretly to convert the Muslims into Buddhism

10. Whenever there is a case between Rakhine and Muslim the court shall give verdict in favour of Rakhine when the case is between Muslim themselves, the court shall favour the rich against the poor Muslim so that the latter leaves the country with frustration

11. Mass killing of the Muslim is to be avoided in order not to invite the attention of the Muslim countries.

Since its inception, the blueprint is a driving force for the military regime, Thein Sein’s quasi-civilian government and even Aung San Suu Kyi led NLD government in persecution of Rohingya.

The ongoing “clearance operations” in northern Maungdaw is an example of deep-rooted decades-long extermination campaign against the marginalized Rohingya. 

The blueprint still remains one of many institutionalized policies largely instrumented against the entire community.

Aman Ullah
RB Analysis
May 19, 2016

“Citizenship is a basic right for it is nothing less than the right to have right.”
Earl Warren, former U S Supreme Court Justice

“White card is a white piece of paper provided by the Immigration Ministry as a Temporary Identity Certificates in accordance with the incumbent law,” once told U Khin Yi, the then Minister of Manpower and Immigration. He also said that, “We provided them with this card because they are not yet verified citizens of the country. They must apply for citizenship and we scrutinize them in accordance with our rules and then we decide whether they can be citizens or not.”

However, there is no such law as the minster said for Temporary Identity Certificates, there was "Temporary registration certificate (TRC)”, which was provided under the under ‘the 1951 Residents of Burma Registration Rules.’ 

The TRC is called Form (3) where as the National Registration Card (NRC) is called Form (2) in accordance with Immigration Department. Initially, TRCs were only issued to those who applied for the registration at the age of 12. It is worth to mention that, since November 5, 1962, as visiting door to door in every nock and corner of the area for registration was not able to do, TRCs also used to issue to those who apply for NRC or form (2), instead of NRC, till recently.

Under the 1951 Residents of Burma Registration Rules, The record-keeper may issue "Temporary registration certificate (TRC)” for any of the following reasons:

· If record-keeper suppose that entry in the registration record has been done completely in a proper way. 

· If an application is submitted to issue another card in lieu of the card, which is lost or damage or faded out? 

· If there is specific reasons by general or special order.

TRC means a certificate issued in lieu of the registration card and a proof of identity valid for a certain period specified in the certificate. The TRC must be in accord with form (3) attached to the back of this rules. The validity duration of TRC may be restricted by fixing a deadline. The holder of TRC shall surrender his card to record-keeper within 7 days after validity of the card expires. The record-keeper may reissue that card endorsing it for validity extension as and when necessary or he may issue new TRC.

The “Residents of Burma Registration Act” was enacted in 1949 and a nine members committee was formed June 1950 to draft its rules in the name of ‘National Registration Rules Drafting Committee’. After finalizing the draft the committee submitted it to the Government for approval and the Parliament approved the Rules in the February 1951 session. It was circulated by the Ministry of Homes on February 23, 1951 as Gazette notification No. 117 in a name of , ‘Residents of Burma registration Rules, 1951’. 

Every person residing in Burma shall furnish, for registration purposes, (his/her) particulars as required under this Act or its rules made there under. The Registration Officer or Assistant Registration Officer shall, in accordance with the rules made under this Act, issue to every person who has registered as such, a registration card as a proof of identity and containing prescribed particulars

Notwithstanding anything in the above rules, the foreigners shall be exempted from the application of the said rules other than rule 29 and 31. The foreigners who were registered under 1940 Foreigner Registration rules shall be deemed that they are being registered under these rules. For the matters in the rule 29 and 31, the registration card issued under 1940 Foreigner Registration Rules shall be deemed that the card is issued under these rules.

Registration and issuing these cards was commenced on March 1, 1952 by visiting door to door in every nock and corner of the area in Rangoon District and in other 7 towns including Akyab on April1, 1952 (1953 Burma gazetteers vol.1, page-819). The tasks of Maungdaw, Buthidaung, Rathedaung and others 20 townships were commenced on August 1, 1953 (1954 Burmese gazetteers Vol.1, page-197).

National Registration Cards (NRCs) were issued to all residents (mainly citizens) whilst registered foreigners (under Foreigners Registration Act and Rule of 1948) were issued FRCs. There was no third category of people in Burma, then. As a result, NRCs were used as a proof of nationality or citizenship. This is the most authentic document concerning Rohingya’s citizenship. 

NRC is a bona fide document that allowed one to carry on all his national activities, without let or hindrance: -- to possess moveable and immovable or landed properties, pursue education, including higher studies and professional courses in the country’s seats of learning, right to work and public services, including armed forces, and to obtain Burmese Passport for travelling abroad, including pilgrimage to Holy Makkah. 

According to the 1973 census, the population of Akyab Township was 140,000; Maungdaw 223,320; Buthidaung 163,353; and Rathedaung 95,270. FRC holders in Akyab were 841, Maungdaw 109, Buthidaung 203 and Rathedaung 55. There were also 1528 people without any documents. That’s means that there were 619, 195 persons NRC holders, 1, 208 persons FRC holders and 1528 persons undocumented in these townships, where more than 60%; of total population was Rohingyas at that time.

However, since 1970 no NRC cards were issued to the Rohingyas, whereas, as per the regulation every person above the age of 12 years would have to have NRCs. In addition to this, the government launched a military operation since 1974 in the name of ‘Sabe Operation’. During that operation thousands of Rohingyas’ NRCs were seized without any legal authorities, on various pretexts which were never returned. In these ways thousands of the poor and natural born Rohingyas were classified as foreigners, alleging filtrated from Bangladesh. Thus, the system of issuing the NRCs was directed to fit into a well-planned policy of de-nationalizing the Rohingyas of Arakan.

The 1982 Citizenship Law was not fully implemented immediately. It appeared to be gradually introduced and implemented over the following decade. National Registration cards were still being issued to Rohingya into the mid 1980s.

In 1989 the dictatorship began replacing the National Registration Cards with new National registration Cards, also known as Scrutiny Cards. These cards are pink. However, when Rohingya handed in their cards for replacing, instead of being given the pink Nations Registrations Cards, or scrutiny cards, they were given Temporary Registration Certificates, a form of temporary card known as the ‘White Card’. Temporary Registration Certificates (White Cards) are issued to residents in Burma (not resident foreigners) under Article 13 of the Residents of Burma Registration Rules (1951).

Until recently the Rohingyas – as other stateless minority populations, such as the Burma-born ethnic Chinese and Indian - at least had ID cards (“white cards”) were able to take part in the 2008 referendum on Burma’s Constitution, and the 2010 elections. . Allegedly, the ruling party, Union Solidarity and Development Party, chaired by the then President Thein Sein, coerced or bought Rohingya votes to secure a majority in parliament in the 2010 elections.

In April 2014, a bill to amend the Political Parties Registration Law was introduced into the Amyotha Hluttaw. The bill committee gave its views on the current law and consequently MPs discussed it from all points of view. The focus of the discussion quickly shifted to the issue of temporary identity cards, which are also known as white cards.

White cards were first issued in 1993 under the State Law and Order Restoration Council. So it is not a new issue; these cards have been around for more than 20 years. Of the 850,000 people who hold these cards, about 750,000 are in Rakhine State, and are referred to as either Bengali or Rohingya. It’s important to consider whether it is a problem that was deliberately created by the former junta and has now been passed on to Myanmar’s citizens and the Rakhine people.

When discussing the white card issue, we need to first look back at the 2010 election. There were nearly 2.7 million eligible voters in Rakhine State at the time of election, according to government figures. Of those 2.7 million, 750,000 were Rohingya holding white cards. This figure would be higher if Muslims holding other forms of identity were included.

The military government drafted elections laws, such as the Political Parties Registration Law, in line with its needs. As a result, the law states that “all people holding identity cards” – meaning anyone with a national scrutiny card, national registration card, a guest citizenship card, a naturalised citizen card or a white card – shall have the right to form a political party and vote in the election. However, only those holding citizenship scrutiny cards were allowed to stand as candidates.

While the Arakan League for Democracy (ALD), which was successful in the 1990 election, boycotted the 2010 vote, a new party, the Rakhine Nationalities Development Party (RNDP) led by U Aye Maung, took part. It campaigned strongly, rallying support from ethnic Rakhine. Realising it could not win the support of most ethnic Rakhine, the Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) rallied white card holders to its side. The RNDP won a majority of seats - 34 to 27 - but the result would have been much more one-sided against the USDP if white card holders could not vote. As it was, the RNDP performed better than any other ethnic minority party in terms of the proportion of seats won.

As we approach the 2015 election, the issue of allowing those who are not yet confirmed as full citizens to vote is being discussed widely. U Aye Maung submitted a proposal to the Amyotha Hluttaw to amend the Political Parties Registration Law created by the former junta and despite objections from U Hla Swe, an outspoken USDP representative from Magwe, most MPs supported it. On March 12, the bill committee presented its recommendations on the proposal, arguing that only citizens should have the privilege of voting, forming a political party or standing for election to parliament.

In early February 2015, the Myanmar parliament approved a proposal by Thein Sein to allow people with temporary identification "white cards," most of who were Rohingya, to vote on a referendum on constitutional amendments to the country's junta-backed constitution, which could come as early as May.

Despite opposition from the National League for Democracy, Burma’s Parliament passed a law on February 2, 2015, which is called 2015 Referendum Law. This law automatically enfranchises hundreds of thousands of white card holders, who live in Burma but successive Burmese regime denied to give them full citizenship rights. According to Irrawaddy report, lawmakers passed the legislation by a vote of 328-79, with 19 abstentions. Critics of the measure argue the new law will undermine national security. The upcoming constitutional referendum may include up to 95 proposed constitutional revisions and it is tentatively scheduled for May 2015, before a general election in October or November. 

These white card holders’ vaguely-defined legal status was being abused by the USDP and government for political gains during voting. They created this policy since 2008 when the country had a referendum.

However, the President who personally advocated their enfranchisement for a referendum on a constitutional amendment issued an executive order that rescinded the same right, the day after the signing of a bill into law that allowed suffrage for white card holders. This decision was effectively reversed by President Thein Sein on 11th February 2015, when he announced all Temporary Registration Certificates (White Cards) expire on 31st March. This decision means that Rohingya will not be able to vote in any referendum or in the elections due in November 2015. President Thein Sein is not only disenfranchising the Rohingya, he is also directly going against the will of Parliament

However, the President’s position has been particularly ambivalent, as he personally advocated their enfranchisement for a referendum on a constitutional amendment, only to The Myanmar government has started issuing green cards to Muslims in 13 townships in restive Rakhine state to verify their identities, bringing them a step closer to applying for citizenship, a local immigration official said Monday.

The back flip came on the back of a legal challenge by the Rakhine National Party and protests by Rakhine Buddhists. Following the protests, Aung San Suu Kyi's opposition National League for Democracy party kicked out 20,000 white card holders from the party's membership. Other parties did the same ahead of scrutiny by the Union Election Commission, which is enforcing requirements that only full citizens are members of Myanmar's 70-odd registered political parties.

An article on white-card holders’ voting rights written by advocate Ko Ni appeared in the Voice Weekly on February 7, which mentioned that they (white cards holders) should have a legal right to vote if their papers had been issued correctly. U KO Ni is a member of the central legal support committee for the National League for Democracy (NLD) and the central committee for constitutional amendments. 

“His article did not represent the NLD. He is a legal expert. His opinions were expressed in his article. He did not represent the legal outlook of the NLD. He responded to the government’s decision to grant voting rights to white-card holders from his legal point of view. It is his own opinion,” said Nyan Win, an NLD spokesman.

The article stated that the laws relating to the registration of citizens and the definition of white-card holders dated back to independence in 1948. The aim of issuing a certificate was to prove identify, Ko Ni wrote. An undocumented person could lose their rights.

People were issued a temporary identity certificate before being recognised as citizens. Ko Ni said temporary identity holders could be allowed to vote if the procedures had been followed correctly.

Issuing out a temporary identity certificate must be in conformity with the law, he said. Therefore, there was no reason to end the voting rights of the white-card holders, the article said.
The decision of the government and the Parliament to allow the white-card holders to vote was a lawful act, he said. The person to blame was the official who issued a temporary identity certificate to someone who did not meet the requirements, the article said.

Khin Yi, the minister for immigration and population, told the Irrawaddy News Agency: “It is not easy to say a person will be surely a citizen. The Immigration Department officially issued white cards in accordance with the law. We issue white cards only to the people who need citizenship and they will have to apply for citizenship. Only when they meet the requirements will they become citizens. Just holding a white card doesn’t make someone a citizen.”

That Arakanese influence could increase, too, as a result of the white card revocation.

The government set a precedent in 2010, when it allowed white card holders to vote in the general election that year. As a result, Arakanese politicians were unable to win regional parliamentary seats in some state townships such as Buthidaung and Maungdaw, where the majority of the population is Muslim and tends to view Arakanese parties antagonistically.

Since Burma’s reforms have been skewed so that the central government and the USDP hold the upper hand, RNDP politicians feel that they need to fight hard to gain electoral dominance. For instance, the President has the right to select the Chief Minister for each state from members of the state Parliament, including a quota of military appointees as well as elected representatives. The Chief Minister of Rakhine State is a retired colonel who was the lead USDP candidate in the local elections of 2010.

Basic electoral arithmetic suggests that forced removal of Muslims would benefit the RNDP. Increased anti-Muslim sentiment among the wider population decreases the scope for the government to offer voting rights to a greater number of Muslims. Many repeatedly pointed to local RNDP activists as promoters of anti-Muslim violence. 

Arakanese critics have long accused the ruling Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) of issuing the white cards to win votes, and the constitutional ruling came after a group of Arakanese parliamentarians asked the court to rule on the matter.

Pe Than, a lawmaker from the Arakan National Party (ANP), said the rescinding of temporary identity cards would mean an end to “white card politics.”

“First of all, we have found that by giving white card holders the vote, this relates to politics. But they [the government] found that a lot of people in the country are against their policy and even the high court pointed out that this violates the Constitution, so they can no longer play their white card politics.”

With white card holders removed from the voting rolls, Arakanese political parties have high hopes for the outcome of this year’s election, which they expect will see their members take a number of seats in both state and Union legislatures.

The ethnic Bamar-dominated central government is wary of minority influence in state parliaments, where constituencies are heavily populated by ethnic minority voters.

The Arakan State parliament consists of 34 elected members and 12 military-appointed representatives. Arakanese lawmakers hope to win a net six seats in 2015, which would give them a majority of the parliament’s 46 representatives.

Arakanese politicians won 18 seats during the 2010 election. The USDP won 13 seats, and two smaller parties—the National Unity Party and the Asho Chin National Party—both won one seat. But the Burma Army’s 13 representatives have allowed a united USDP-military front to control the legislature.

Rohingya Exodus